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US Brings Legal Action Against Chinese Company for North Korea Ties [英字新聞]

2016-10-01 from VOA
US Brings Legal Action Against Chinese Company for North Korea Ties

The United States announced criminal charges and economic sanctions against four Chinese individuals and a Chinese company earlier this week.

The U.S. government said it acted to punish them for suspected support for North Korea's nuclear weapons program.

On Wednesday, a State Department official suggested that more Chinese companies and individuals could face investigation for suspected violations of sanctions on North Korea.

The State Department’s coordinator for Sanctions Policy, Daniel Fried, spoke to the Senate Foreign Relations Subcommittee.

He said, “It would also be useful if Chinese banks and companies understood that increasingly dealing with North Korean companies, especially those that are sanctioned, is going to be risky.”

Two days earlier, the Treasury Department announced criminal charges and economic actions against a Chinese seller of industrial machinery. It named four top officials of Dandong Hongxiang Industrial Developmental Company Limited (DHID).

The four include the company’s chairwoman, Ma Xiaohong. They are accused of plotting to avoid sanctions against North Korea, and using American financial businesses to hide the money they earned illegally.

Chinese officials also are investigating the company. They are looking at its connection with the Kwangson Banking Corporation, a North Korean bank. U.S. and United Nations have said the bank has provided financial services in support of North Korea’s weapons programs.

A State Department officials said, “This shows we can work cooperatively with China; we both see it in our interests to apply greater pressure on North Korea.”

On Tuesday, a Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs official spoke to reporters about the U.S. action. Spokesman Geng Shuang said China was prepared to support U.N. resolutions against North Korea. The resolutions call for sanctions to punish the North for its nuclear and missile tests.

However, the spokesman expressed opposition to other countries using their own laws against companies or people within China.

“I want to stress that we oppose any country enacting so-called ‘long-arm jurisdiction,’ using its own domestic laws against a Chinese entity or individual,” he said.

In March, China agreed to the strongest U.N. Security Council sanctions yet to limit trade with North Korea.

The council's members have approved other actions to punish the country for its nuclear activities and missile program. Those restrictions have largely halted North Korean trade with countries other than China.

North Korea has faced severe international sanctions to punish the country for its nuclear activity and missile program.

Those restrictions have largely halted North Korean trade with countries other than China.

However, new research suggests that North Korean state-operated businesses are using middlemen in China to avoid sanctions.

I’m Mario Ritter.

This story was written from reports by Pete Cobus and Nike Ching for VOA News. Mario Ritter adapted it for VOA Learning English. George Grow was the editor.

_____________________________________________________________

Words in This Story

entity –n. a legal business or organization, something that exists by itself and is separate from other things

middlemen –n. people who buy goods from a producer and sell them to someone else

終戦の日 確かな「平和と繁栄」を築こう [英字新聞]

The Yomiuri Shimbun
War-end anniversary start for constructive peace, prosperity
終戦の日 確かな「平和と繁栄」を築こう

 ◆世界に伝える日米の新たな和解◆

Today marks the 71st anniversary of the end of World War II. This day offers an opportunity to mourn the 3.1 million people who died in the war and renew our vow for peace.
 71回目の終戦の日を迎えた。先の大戦で亡くなった310万の人々を追悼し、平和への誓いを新たにする日である。

A government-sponsored memorial service for the war dead will be held at the Nippon Budokan hall in Tokyo’s Kitanomaru Park.
 東京・北の丸公園の日本武道館では、政府主催の全国戦没者追悼式が行われる。

Aug. 15 has long been established as the anniversary of the war’s end, marking the same day in 1945 when Emperor Showa told the people of the war’s termination.
 昭和天皇が国民に終戦を伝えた8月15日が、日本では長く終戦記念日として定着している。

Strictly speaking, however, the end of all combative activities was formalized on Sept. 2 that year. Aboard the USS Missouri, which was anchored in Tokyo Bay, representatives of Japan and the Allied Powers signed an instrument of surrender on that day.
 ただし、戦闘の終結が確定したのは、厳密には9月2日である。東京湾に停泊する米戦艦ミズーリ号上で、日本と連合国の代表が降伏文書に調印した。

Pearl Harbor, Hiroshima
 ◆真珠湾と広島で発信を

The Battleship Missouri, preserved at Pearl Harbor in Honolulu, is open for public viewing. Located at the bottom of the sea nearby, the USS Arizona, the battleship that was sunk during the Japanese surprise attack on the harbor, is the resting place of more than 1,100 officers and sailors.
 戦艦ミズーリは現在、ハワイ・ホノルルの真珠湾に係留され、一般公開されている。近くの海底には、日本の奇襲攻撃で撃沈された戦艦アリゾナが、1100人を超える将兵とともに眠る。

The cry of “No more Hiroshimas” can be answered with “Remember Pearl Harbor!” The atomic bombings and the Pearl Harbor attack are thorns in an unfortunate piece of Japan-U.S. history.
 「ノーモア・ヒロシマ」と叫べば、「リメンバー・パールハーバー」と反論される。「原爆投下」と「真珠湾攻撃」は、日米の不幸な歴史のトゲのような存在だ。

During a visit to Pearl Harbor in 1997, then Chinese President Jiang Zemin made a speech in which he said the Chinese and the Americans had “stood side by side in the fight against the fascist invasion.” His speech was intended to emphasize cooperation between the United States and China, and thereby drive a wedge into the Japan-U.S. alliance.
 1997年に中国の江沢民国家主席が真珠湾を訪問した際、「ファシストの侵略に対して中米両国民は肩を並べて戦った」などと演説したこともあった。米中の連携を強調し、日米同盟に楔くさびを打ち込もうとしたものだ。

However, both Pearl Harbor and Hiroshima are being transformed into a theater of reconciliation.
 しかし、真珠湾も広島も、和解の舞台へと変わりつつある。

Since 2013, a tiny folded paper crane has been displayed in a corner of the USS Arizona Memorial in Pearl Harbor. The origami crane, produced by the late Sadako Sasaki, a survivor of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima, was donated by her bereaved family to the memorial. The Children’s Peace Monument in Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park is modeled on Sasaki.
 真珠湾のアリゾナ記念館の一角には、小さな折り鶴が2013年から展示されている。広島平和記念公園内にある「原爆の子の像」のモデル、佐々木禎子さんが折った1羽を、遺族が寄贈した。

The city government in Nagaoka, Niigata Prefecture — birthplace of Isoroku Yamamoto, commander in chief of the prewar Combined Fleet, who led the Pearl Harbor raid — has conducted exchange activities with Honolulu since the two cities established a sister-city relationship in 2012.
 真珠湾攻撃を指揮した連合艦隊司令長官・山本五十六の出身地、新潟県長岡市は12年の姉妹都市提携以来、ホノルル市と交流を続ける。

In a memorial ceremony held in August 2015, the 70th year of the postwar period, fireworks from Nagaoka were set off in Pearl Harbor’s night sky, accompanied by a prayer for peace.
戦後70年の15年8月の追悼式典では、平和を祈念する長岡の花火が真珠湾の夜空を飾った。

A visit to Hiroshima by U.S. President Barack Obama in May was the result of a wise decision made despite persistent opinion in the United States that the atomic bombings were justified. His 17-minute remarks went right to the hearts of many people. Although the Japanese side has not accepted this inhumane action, it has not demanded an apology from the United States.
 今年5月のオバマ米大統領の広島訪問は、米国で原爆投下を正当化する意見が根強い中での英断であり、17分間に及ぶ声明は多くの人の心を打った。日本側も、非人道的な行為を容認したわけではないが、謝罪を求めなかった。

Obama’s historic visit symbolized the mature nature of Japan-U.S. relations. This has been founded on a relationship of trust built over the years by the two allies, which share such values as freedom, democracy and human rights.
 成熟した日米関係を象徴する歴史的な訪問だった。その土台には、自由や民主主義、人権といった価値観を共有する同盟国が長年築いてきた信頼関係がある。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s statement last August expressing anew “remorse and apology” for Japan’s wartime actions has been taken positively by the United States and many other countries.
 先の大戦への反省とお詫わびを改めて表明した昨年8月の安倍首相談話は、米国をはじめ、多くの国に肯定的に受け止められた。

The current stable bilateral relations between Japan and the United States should be developed further.
 今日の安定した日米関係を、さらに発展させたい。

In contrast to the United States, China continues to use the historical perception issue as a diplomatic card. When Obama visited Hiroshima, Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi said bluntly that “Nanjing should not be forgotten and deserves even more attention.”
 米国とは対照的に、歴史を外交カードにし続けているのが中国である。オバマ氏の広島訪問の際、王毅外相は「南京は更に忘れるべきではない」と言い放った。

China against intl order
 ◆秩序に挑むのは中国だ

China has unilaterally asserted that 300,000 people were killed during the Nanjing Incident and has had “Documents of the Nanjing Massacre” added to the UNESCO’s Memory of the World list.
 中国は、南京事件で30万人が殺されたと一方的に主張し、「南京大虐殺の文書」のユネスコ世界記憶遺産登録を実現させた。

On the anniversary of the country’s “victory” in the “War of Resistance Against Japan” last September, China held a military parade in front of about 30 heads of state and leaders of the world, emphasizing China as a “victorious nation” in World War II.
 昨年9月の「抗日戦勝記念日」には、約30か国の元首・首脳の前で軍事パレードを披露し、中国が「戦勝国」であると誇示した。

Yet China’s foreign policies as a “victor country,” in which it proclaims that it backed the international order, while trying to change the international maritime order in the East and South China seas through force, has not won empathy from the international community.
 だが、東・南シナ海で力による海洋秩序の変更を試みる一方、自らが国際秩序の側にあるように喧伝けんでんする「戦勝国外交」は、国際社会の共感を得ていない。

South Korea, which had attempted to join hands with China in addressing issues related to historical perception, has shifted its stance to improve its relationship with Japan, following the bilateral deal Japan and South Korea reached late last year on the issue of the so-called comfort women. Japan will contribute ¥1 billion to a foundation set up by South Korea to support former comfort women as early as this month.
 中国と“歴史共闘”を進めてきた韓国は、慰安婦問題を巡る昨年末の日韓合意を機に、対日関係の改善に転じた。日本は月内にも、元慰安婦を支援する韓国の財団に10億円を拠出する方針だ。

Yet a support group for former comfort women and others have not relaxed their stance of opposing the foundation. Also, a comfort woman statue was unveiled at a ceremony in Australia early this month, following similar ceremonies in the United States. The misperception that these women were forcibly taken by the now-defunct Imperial Japanese Army prevails in the world even today.
 ただ、元慰安婦支援団体などは、財団に反対する姿勢を崩していない。米国に続いてオーストラリアでも今月上旬、慰安婦像の除幕式が行われた。慰安婦は旧日本軍に強制連行されたという誤解が今なお、世界に広がっている。

Refute distortions
 ◆史実の歪曲に反論せよ

The Japanese government must continue to appropriately refute distortions of various historical facts related to the war. It is also important to urge China and other countries to abide by the rules of the international community.
 日本政府は、戦争に関する様々な史実の歪曲わいきょくに対し、的確な反論を続けねばならない。国際社会のルールの順守を中国などに働きかけることも大切だ。

Efforts must also be made to resolve the issue of the northern territories with Russia.
 ロシアとの北方領土問題の解決にも力を入れる必要がある。

A more strategic approach is required for Japan to resolve pending postwar issues with Russia, which remain unsettled even after the passage of 71 years since the end of the war, and conclude a peace treaty.
 71年を経ても未解決の戦後処理問題を決着させ、日露平和条約を締結するには、一段と戦略的なアプローチが求められる。

After Russia’s annexation of Crimea in March 2014, European countries and the United States continue to impose sanctions against that country. In the meantime, Abe has been exploring ways to resolve the territorial issues through repeated talks with Russian President Vladimir Putin. Abe will visit Russia’s Far East early next month at the soonest.
 14年3月のロシアのクリミア併合以降、欧米諸国は対露制裁を続けるが、安倍首相は、プーチン大統領との会談を重ね、領土問題の打開の道を探っている。来月上旬にも、ロシア極東を訪れる。

By pursuing constructive relations with other countries, the peace and prosperity that Japan has been building since the end of the war should be made more solid. Such efforts will also contribute to responding to hopes of those who lost their lives during the war.
 各国との建設的な関係を追求して、戦後日本が築いてきた平和と繁栄をより確かなものとしたい。先の大戦で犠牲となった戦没者の思いに応えることにもなろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 15, 2016)

小池新都知事 都民本位の改革実行を [英字新聞]

--The Asahi Shimbun, Aug. 1
EDITORIAL: Koike must keep promise, push policies that help Tokyo citizens
(社説)小池新都知事 都民本位の改革実行を

Former Defense Minister Yuriko Koike was elected Tokyo’s new governor on July 31, becoming the first female chief of the capital’s government. We hope Koike will capitalize on her trademark ability to send out effective messages in her role as the public face of Japan’s capital.
 東京都の新しい知事に、小池百合子氏が選ばれた。初の女性都知事の誕生だ。日本の首都の顔として、持ち前の発信力を生かしてほしい。

Koike won a landslide victory in the gubernatorial election despite failing to receive the endorsement of her Liberal Democratic Party, which fielded another candidate. The ruling party’s decision, based primarily on its partisan interests, probably provoked a backlash among voters in Tokyo.
 自民党の意向に逆らった末の勝利である。都民の胸中には、党による「組織の論理」に対する反発が色濃くあったはずだ。

The process in which opposition parties led by the Democratic Party chose a unified candidate also confused many voters.
野党の統一候補選びにも分かりにくさがあった。

During her campaign, Koike pledged to put priority on the interests of individual citizens. She should be true to her words and push through reforms to shift the focus of Tokyo’s policymaking from the interests of specific organizations to those of the entire population of the capital.
 小池氏は、都民一人ひとりが主役だと唱えた訴えどおり、特定の組織に目を向ける旧来の政治から、都民全体を考える都政への変革を進めてほしい。

Koike needs to provide leadership to resolve a wide range of tough policy challenges, from the rapidly aging population to disaster preparedness for a huge earthquake that many experts warn could occur directly under Tokyo.
 急速に進む高齢化への対応や首都直下地震への備えなど、小池氏がリーダーシップを発揮すべき課題は山積している。

In particular, she must immediately review the financing plan for the 2020 Tokyo Olympics and Paralympics, focusing on the capital’s contribution. The total cost for the event, initially estimated at 700 billion yen ($6.8 billion), is now expected to balloon to 2 trillion yen or even 3 trillion yen. The challenge for Koike is to figure out ways to reduce the cost and decide on an appropriate burden for Tokyo.
 すぐに待ち受けるのは東京五輪・パラリンピックの整備費の分担見直しだ。当初7千億円と言われた全体経費は2兆とも3兆とも言われている。これをいかに削り、都負担の適正ラインをどこに引くか。

Both the Tokyo Organizing Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games and the LDP members of the metropolitan assembly are calling for an increase in the capital’s share of the cost burden, emphasizing Tokyo’s responsibility due to its bid to host the event.
 組織委も都議会自民党も「招致した東京の責任」を唱え、都の負担増を求めている。

Discussing the issue, Koike criticized the Tokyo government’s opaque policymaking process as a “black box” and called for greater transparency. The issue of financing the 2020 Olympics and Paralympics will test her commitment to addressing the issue.
小池氏は「都政がブラックボックスになっている」と決定過程の透明化を訴えた。その真価が問われることになる。

In an Asahi Shimbun survey of voters in Tokyo, “education and child-care support” was cited by the largest number of respondents as the policy area that they wanted the new governor to prioritize.
 朝日新聞の調査では、新知事に力を入れてほしい政策のトップは「教育・子育て」だった。

Tokyo’s child-care support for its citizens has national implications. Many young people who moved from rural areas to Tokyo are giving up having children because of an unfavorable environment for rearing children. This problem is accelerating Japan’s demographic decline.
 「子育て」問題は東京の課題にとどまらない。首都圏に集まった地方の若者が、子育て環境の悪さなどから、子どもを産むのをあきらめる構造が日本の人口減に拍車をかけている。

During her campaign, Koike proposed various ideas to solve the problem of the estimated 8,500 children on waiting lists for day-care centers. Her ideas included the use of land owned by the metropolitan government and higher pay for child-care workers. Koike needs to make steady efforts to deal with this challenge.
 約8500人にのぼる待機児童の解消に向け、都有地の活用や保育士の待遇改善など様々なアイデアが選挙戦で語られた。着実に対策を進めてほしい。

On the other hand, Koike talked little about education.
 一方、小池氏が「教育」について語ることはほぼなかった。

She once argued that tragic incidents involving children, such as murders of family members, were a result of Japan’s “self-deprecating education” in the postwar period.
 かつて、家族間での殺人事件などが起きるのは「自虐的な戦後教育の結果」だと語ったこともある。

The Japan Society for History Textbook Reform, an organization devoted to helping the nation “overcome masochistic historical views,” backed Koike in the election, saying she was the only major candidate who supported its activities.
自虐史観の克服を掲げる「新しい歴史教科書をつくる会」は、主な候補のうち小池氏だけが活動を支えてくれた、と今回支持を表明していた。

The law on regional educational administration was revised in 2014 to enhance the power of local government chiefs over education policy decisions. Instead of using her power as the governor to promote education based on specific values, Koike should serve as a champion of “diversity,” which she pledged to promote, in education.
 2014年の地方教育行政法の改正で、首長の権限が強められた。特定の価値観ではなく、自らが公約とした「多様性」を認める教育をめざすべきだ。

In announcing her candidacy, Koike emphasized she was ready to confront the LDP in the metropolitan assembly. We welcome her stance if that means true competition for better, citizen-focused policies through serious debate at the assembly.
 立候補の際、小池氏は都議会自民党との対決を強調した。議場での真剣な議論を通じ、都民本位の政治を競うなら歓迎だ。

But we have had enough of the petty political fights over parochial interests.
 しかし、またコップの中の争いになるなら、ごめんこうむりたい。

After the resignation of two Tokyo governors--Naoki Inose and Yoichi Masuzoe--amid scandals, there is no room for further stagnation in the capital’s efforts to tackle its key policy challenges.
猪瀬直樹氏、舛添要一氏と2代続いた失脚で、これ以上都政を停滞させる余裕はない。

追加金融緩和 日銀は政権のしもべか [英字新聞]

--The Asahi Shimbun, July 30
EDITORIAL: BOJ must free itself from the shackles of state policy
(社説)追加金融緩和 日銀は政権のしもべか

The Bank of Japan has decided to open the monetary spigot further. The central bank said July 29 that it will double its annual purchases of exchange-traded funds (ETF) to 6 trillion yen ($58.8 billion).
 日本銀行が金融緩和の追加策を決めた。日銀が買い入れる上場投資信託(ETF)の額を年間6兆円に倍増する。

The BOJ’s action came as a response to a request for further monetary expansion from the Abe administration, which will soon unveil a huge package of policy measures to stoke economic growth. The program will come in at 28 trillion yen.
 安倍政権は近く事業規模28兆円の大型経済対策を発表する予定で、日銀に金融緩和で協力するよう求めていた。

The central bank has already taken radical steps to pump money into the economy, by setting negative interest rates and making massive purchases of government bonds. As experts have warned that expanding these measures would be ineffective and even harmful, the BOJ, apparently under pressure to play ball with the government, resorted to one of the few remaining options.
マイナス金利の拡大や国債買い入れの増額に弊害や限界が指摘されるなかで、政府に歩調を合わせるための苦肉の策と言えよう。

The thinking behind the monetary policy is to ensure that the Japanese economy will continue stable and sustained growth.
 金融政策の本来の目的は、日本経済を安定させ持続的な発展を確かなものにすることだ。

It is doubtful whether the central bank’s latest move will serve this purpose.
今回の緩和策がそれにかなっているかと言えば、疑わしい。

In the latest of its quarterly “Outlook for Economic Activity and Prices” report, released on July 29, the BOJ said the economy “has continued its moderate recovery trend” and “is likely to be on a moderate expanding trend.”
 日銀は四半期に一度の「展望リポート」で日本の景気の現状を「緩やかな回復を続けている」とし、今後についても「緩やかに拡大していく」と見通した。

A clutch of economic indicators confirmed the BOJ’s assessment, indicating the economy is on a stable footing. The ratio of job offers to job seekers has risen above 1 in all the 47 prefectures for the first time since such records started being kept.
有効求人倍率が全都道府県で初めて1倍を超えるなど多くの景気指標が改善を示し、景気はそれなりに安定している。

Even though there is a degree of uncertainty in European and emerging economies, no compelling case can be made for putting together an outsized package of economic stimulus measures at this moment. The BOJ should have taken exception to the administration’s plan, but the central bank has instead provided support to the administration through the additional monetary easing.
 欧州経済や新興国経済に不透明感があるとはいえ、いま大型の経済対策を打ち出そうという政府の発想そのものがおかしい。日銀はそれに物申すべきだが、追加緩和でむしろ側面支援してしまった。

The BOJ deserves to be criticized for following the government’s lead into a questionable move.
政権の意を受けて追従したと見られても仕方あるまい。

Two of the nine members of the BOJ’s Policy Board, which makes the bank’s policy decisions, voiced opposition to the proposal to increase the purchases of ETFs, investment vehicles traded on stock exchanges.
 金融政策を決める審議委員9人のうちETF購入増には2人が反対した。

They argued, quite reasonably, that the step would have negative effects on price formation in the market. But such dissenting voices within the central bank’s policy-making body are now more unlikely to be heard than before because the Abe administration has replaced retiring members with supporters of the prime minister's "Abenomics" economic policy. The two members opposed to the latest action are both private-sector economists who joined the Policy Board before Shinzo Abe returned to power in December 2012.
「市場の価格形成に悪影響を及ぼす」などもっともな理由からだが、こうした意見は出にくくなっている。委員の任期が来るたびに、政権がアベノミクス賛成論者に替えてきたからだ。反対の2人は第2次安倍政権の発足前から務める民間エコノミスト出身者である。

If the Policy Board is dominated by similar-minded members, it will lose its ability to check the aggressive and controversial “different dimension” monetary expansion policy that has been promoted by BOJ Governor Haruhiko Kuroda.
 政権の考えに近い委員ばかりになれば、黒田東彦総裁が旗を振る異次元緩和に対するチェック機能は失われてしまう。

We are concerned that the BOJ might become even more inclined to adopt a monetary policy supportive of the administration’s agenda.
今後ますます政権にとって都合のよい金融政策に傾きかねない点も気がかりだ。

But the Policy Board should be given credit for refraining from an expansion of the negative interest rate policy, which could put an additional strain on the financial health of banks, and also from an increase in the amount of government bonds bought by the BOJ, which could be seen as the central bank’s attempt to finance government spending.
 ただ、金融機関の経営をますます圧迫しかねないマイナス金利政策の強化や、政府への財政ファイナンスと受け取られかねない国債買い入れの増額に手をつけなかった点は評価したい。

Markets had warned that failing to take these steps would trigger the yen’s upswing as well as a major stock market decline. But this view itself reflects a distorted relationship between monetary policy and financial markets.
市場では「実施しないと円高、株安になる」となかば脅しのように語られていたが、そのこと自体が金融政策と市場とのゆがんだ関係を表している。

The BOJ’s excessive monetary expansion is now doing more harm than good to both companies and households.
 企業や家計にとって、行きすぎた金融緩和は今や有害だ。

The negative interest rate policy has delivered a serious blow not just to banks but also to pension funds whose investment plans have gone awry due to the measure.
マイナス金利政策では、金融機関だけでなく運用計画が狂った年金基金も悲鳴をあげている。

To bring its monetary policy back to a normal state, the BOJ should start mapping out an exit strategy for its different dimension monetary easing program as soon as possible.
日銀は正常な金融政策に立ち戻るため、早く異次元緩和からの出口政策を検討し始めるべきだ。

ASEAN会議 中国の国際法無視が目に余る [英字新聞]

The Yomiuri Shimbun
China’s disregard for international law glaringly apparent at ASEAN
ASEAN会議 中国の国際法無視が目に余る

Beijing continues to reject the court of arbitration’s decision dismissing the country’s self-serving claims that its sovereignty covers almost all the area in the South China Sea. We believe such a high-handed stance can never be accepted.
 南シナ海のほぼ全域に主権が及ぶという独善的な主張を否定した仲裁裁判所の判決を拒否し続ける。そんな中国の横暴は決して許されまい。

Foreign ministers gathered for meetings of the East Asia Summit — Japan, the United States, China and Southeast Asian countries are among the members — and the ASEAN Regional Forum.
 日米中や東南アジアなどによる東アジア首脳会議(EAS)と東南アジア諸国連合(ASEAN)地域フォーラム(ARF)の外相会議が開かれた。

Regarding Beijing’s moves to militarize the South China Sea, U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry called for China to respect the ruling, saying, “It is an arbitration, the results of which ... is legally binding.”
 中国が南シナ海で軍事拠点化を進める問題について、ケリー米国務長官は、「仲裁の結果には法的拘束力がある」と述べ、中国に判決を尊重するよう要求した。

Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida followed suit, stressing, “Parties concerned should comply with the court of arbitration, which will contribute to solving the issue.”
 岸田外相も、「仲裁裁判に紛争当事国が従うことで、問題の解決につながる」と強調した。

It is crucial for Japan, the United States and other countries concerned to work together to keep urging China to abide by the ruling.
 日米など関係国が結束して、中国に判決の順守を促し続けることが肝要である。

During a meeting with Kishida, Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi called for Japan to be discreet in word and deed because Tokyo is “not a party concerned in the South China Sea issue.” This cannot be overlooked.
 看過できないのは、中国の王毅外相が岸田外相との会談で、「日本は南シナ海問題の当事国ではない」などと強弁し、言行を慎むよう求めたことだ。

It is nothing less than in the common interest of the international community to maintain order in the South China Sea based on the rule of law, and ensure freedom of navigation. We regard Wang’s claims as unreasonable.
 「法の支配」に基づく南シナ海の秩序維持と航行の自由の確保は国際社会共通の利益にほかならない。王氏の主張は筋違いだ。

Following the ruling, Beijing announced that it had sent new bombers on patrol around the Scarborough Shoal in the South China Sea, which is close to the Philippines. The country said it will regularly conduct such missions, and has also expressed a policy to continue building artificial islands in the area. A series of such moves will only heighten tension.
 中国は判決後、フィリピンに近い南シナ海のスカボロー礁付近で新型爆撃機の巡視飛行を実施したと発表した。今後は常態化させるという。人工島の施設建設を続ける方針も示している。一連の行動は緊張を高めるだけだ。

Apparent maneuver

Ahead of the EAS meeting, foreign ministers from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations issued a joint statement at their gathering, which said they “remain seriously concerned” over current developments in the South China Sea. The document failed to directly refer to the ruling because of strong opposition from Cambodia, which receives huge amounts of economic assistance from China.
 EAS外相会議に先立ち、ASEAN外相会議は共同声明で、南シナ海の現状に対し、「深刻な懸念」を表明した。判決に直接言及しなかったのは、中国から大規模な経済支援を受けているカンボジアが強硬に反対したためだ。

“Only one country mentioned the court of arbitration during this meeting,” Wang said, with an eye on the Philippines. Chinese President Xi Jinping’s administration, which suffered a serious diplomatic setback from the ruling, apparently believed that it was able to regain lost ground by splitting ASEAN members.
 王氏は、フィリピンを念頭に、「会議で仲裁裁判に触れたのは1か国だけだ」と語った。判決で外交上の大敗北を喫した習近平政権はASEANを切り崩し、巻き返しを図ったつもりなのだろう。

We suspect that China is also drawing up a scenario to woo the Philippines, which has just undergone a change of administration, to set aside the ruling and hold talks.
 判決を棚上げしたまま、政権交代したばかりのフィリピンを懐柔して対話に持ち込む。こんな筋書きも描いているのではないか。

Wang announced that China had set a target of completing the establishment of a code of conduct with ASEAN — which would legally bind moves by countries concerned in the South China Sea — by the first half of next year. Beijing’s reluctance has so far hampered talks on the envisioned set of rules between the two sides.
 王氏は、南シナ海での関係国の行動を法的に拘束する行動規範について、来年上半期までに策定を完了する目標を明らかにした。これまでASEANとの協議では、中国の消極姿勢が障害だった。

China presented the target apparently with the aim of fending off criticism from ASEAN. We cannot believe that China, which disregards international law, will seriously engage in the establishment of multinational rules. Countries concerned should beef up pressure on China to give the code of conduct more teeth.
 時期の明示には、ASEAN側の批判をかわす狙いがあろう。国際法を蔑ないがしろにする中国が国際ルールの策定に真摯しんしに取り組むとは思えない。関係国は、行動規範の実効性を高めるよう対中圧力を強めるべきである。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 27, 2016)

英国がEU離脱へ 内向き志向の連鎖を防げ [英字新聞]

--The Asahi Shimbun, June 25
EDITORIAL: ‘Brexit’ vote must not trigger wave of global nationalism
(社説)英国がEU離脱へ 内向き志向の連鎖を防げ

The British people’s decision to pull their country out of the European Union has sent shock waves across the world.
 英国の民意が世界に衝撃を走らせた。

The stunning decision could turn out to be the biggest tectonic shift in the world order since the end of the Cold War.
冷戦が終わって以降の世界秩序の中で、最大の地殻変動となりかねない出来事だ。

A majority of votes cast in the June 23 referendum on whether to leave the EU or remain in the bloc were for “Brexit.” Britons have decided that their country should not be part of an integrated Europe.
 欧州連合(EU)からの離脱か残留かを問うた国民投票で、離脱が過半数を占めた。英国は統合欧州の一員であるべきではない、との結論である。

Since the end of World War II, Europe has moved steadily toward integration. Britain’s withdrawal from the EU will be a historic development that runs counter to this movement, launched with a pledge of no more war in Europe.
 先の大戦後、不戦の誓いを起点に脈々と前進してきた欧州統合の歩みが、初めて逆行する。

Britain is the second largest economy in Europe and has unique global influence, a legacy of the British Empire. Its secession from the EU will have immeasurable effects on the entire world.
域内第2の経済力と、かつての覇権国家として特異な影響力をもつ英国の離脱は、計り知れない波紋を広げるだろう。

The outcome of the referendum is also a sign of the British people's will to resist globalization, which has accelerated since the end of the Cold War. They have run out of patience with the trend of many countries sharing rules on important issues such as immigration and trade.
 この英国民の選択は、冷戦後加速したグローバル化に対する抵抗の意思表示でもある。移民や貿易など様々なルールを多くの国々で共有する流れに、国民の辛抱が続かなかった。

This anti-globalization sentiment is, however, not unique to Britain. In the United States and in other parts of Europe, groups trying to take advantage of growing public resentment toward globalization to promote their political agenda for closing the doors of their nations are gaining ground.
 それは英国特有の現象ではない。米国や欧州各国でも、グローバル化に矛先が向く国民の不満に乗じて国を閉ざそうという主張が勢いを増している。

At a time when countries should make united efforts to counter burgeoning narrow-minded nationalism, Britain has opted to take the path of expanding the scope of its unilateral actions. In mapping out its future course, Britain will have to navigate through uncharted waters.
 ナショナリズムの台頭に、主要国がいっそう結束を強めて立ち向かうべきときに、英国自身が単独行動を広げる道を選ぶというのだ。これからの英国の針路は海図なき航海となろう。

No matter how the country’s negotiations with the EU over its withdrawal pan out, the two sides should not lose sight of the importance of maintaining close cooperation.
 今後の離脱交渉の行方がどうなるにせよ、英国とEUは連携の関係を見失ってはならない。

Britain and the EU can secure mutual benefits and contribute to stability in the world only when they work closely together to tackle challenges.
両者は協調し合ってこそ、互いに利益を高め、ひいては世界の安定に資することができる。

We strongly hope that the two sides will figure out a way to build a new constructive relationship without undermining the movement toward European integration.
 欧州統合の流れに水を差すことなく、英国とEU双方が新たな建設的関係を築く落着点を何とか探ってほしい。

CHALLENGE IS HOW TO HEAL THE DIVISION
 ■分断の修復が課題

The outcome of this referendum should not be allowed to serve as a starting point for a new, dark chapter of world history in which citizens around the world become estranged from one another.
 この投票結果を、世界の市民が離反し合う不幸な歴史の起点にしてはならない。

The first thing is to heal the rift in British society. The bitterly fought referendum left the nation sharply divided.
そのために、まず修復すべきは足元の英国社会だ。激戦となった国民投票は、英国民を分断した。

Campaign debates were often dominated by remarks designed to emphasize the threats of an economic crisis or immigrants.
 論戦では、経済危機や移民の脅威をあおる言動が相次いだ。

Amid heightened tensions due to a heated confrontation between the two camps, a member of parliament in the Remain camp was shot to death.
対立感情が高ぶった空気の中で、残留派の国会議員が射殺されるという痛ましい事件も起きた。

British society is now gripped by a dangerously charged atmosphere.
英国社会には、いまも不穏な空気が漂っている。

Prime Minister David Cameron, who passionately called for votes to remain in the EU, has announced he will step down by autumn.
 残留を唱えたキャメロン首相は秋までに辞任する意向を示した。

It is, to be sure, natural for the country to have a new leader to draw up a road map for the future.
確かに、今後の国の針路を描くうえで新しい指導者を選出するのは自然なことだろう。

But his own Conservative Party has been divided between the Leave and the Remain camps. Scotland, which has a strong sense of belonging to the EU, could make a fresh attempt to become independent.
 ただ、首相が属する保守党内も両派で割れている。EUへの帰属意識の高いスコットランドは改めて独立へ動きかねない。

Britain seems to be in for a prolonged period of political turmoil.
政治の混乱は尾を引きそうだ。

Both Cameron and his successor will have to act swiftly to heal the rift within the country and create a conductive environment for cool-headed discussions on the country’s relations with the EU and its position in the world.
 キャメロン首相も後継者も、国内でくすぶる対立を鎮め、EUとの関係や、世界での英国の立ち位置を冷静に考える環境づくりを急がねばなるまい。

INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION KEY
 ■国際協調の道こそ

Britain, which had a mighty empire in the 19th century, entered a period of serious stagnation in the late 20th century. It was able to shed stagnation and attain new prosperity because it opened its door to the world and rode the wave of globalization to enhance its competitiveness, especially in the financial services industry.
 19世紀の世界を制した英国は20世紀後半、深刻な停滞の時期を迎えた。その苦悩から脱し、繁栄を築けたのは、積極的に国を開いてグローバル経済の波に乗り、金融を筆頭に様々な得意分野を広げたからだ。

But British citizens who have not benefited from their country’s economic growth have become increasingly disgruntled with the system and worried about their future. As a result, British society as a whole has developed an inward-looking attitude.
 ただ、その恩恵が届かない市民の不満や不安は高まり、全体的に内向き志向が強まった。

Besides people drawn to the reactionary argument that Britain should regain “sovereignty,” many other Britons voted for leaving the EU because of their economic discontent.
復古的な主権回復派だけでなく、経済の不満から離脱を選んだ国民が多かったとみられる。

Despite the fact that their country has achieved economic growth due to the lowered barriers of national borders, British people have made clear their wish to see high border walls built up again.
 国境の垣根が低くなったことで経済が発展しながら、国民感情は国境の壁の再建を望む。

This twisted public psychology has also been behind the Trump Phenomenon in the United States and the recent rise of rightist political forces in many other European countries.
そんな倒錯した状況から生まれるものとしては、米国のトランプ現象や、欧州各国での右翼の躍進もほぼ同じ脈絡にある。

Britain’s decision could trigger a wave of movements toward secession from the EU in other member countries.
 英国に続けとばかりに、他のEU加盟国でも離脱の機運が高まりかねない。

If in such a political climate Trump is elected U.S. president and Marine Le Pen, the leader of the rightist National Front of France, is elected French president next year, the world will be filled with policies of intolerance.
もし米国の大統領選でもトランプ氏が当選したら、さらに来年のフランス大統領選で右翼ルペン氏が勝つような事態になれば、世界は不寛容な政策に満ちてしまう。

The situation where the world is dominated by this inward-looking trend must be prevented.
 内向き志向の潮流が、世界を覆う事態を防がねばならない。

The spread of narrow-minded and self-centered unilateralism among countries will make it impossible for the world to grapple with challenges such as global warming, the proliferation of terrorism and loopholes in taxation.
偏狭な一国中心の考え方が広がれば、地球温暖化やテロ対策、租税問題など、地球規模の問題に対処する能力を世界は鍛えることができなくなってしまう。

It is difficult for any industrial nation to maintain its political health.
 どの先進国も、政治のかじ取りが難しい時代である。

Low economic growth, declining welfare standards due to fiscal strains and widening income gaps are formidable problems common to industrial nations. Politicians everywhere are struggling to find effective solutions to these problems.
低成長と財政難による福祉水準の低下や格差の拡大という問題が共通し、どの国の政治家も解決策どころか有権者への効果的な説明すら見いだしあぐねている。

That’s why expanding international cooperation is the only option for countries in tackling these tough challenges.
 だからこそ、国際協調しか道はない。

All nations should reflect afresh on the fact that the only way to deal with problems transcending national borders is through cooperative actions based on collective experiences and wisdom.
国境を超える問題への対処の道は、各国の経験と知恵を結集した行動しかないことを改めて考えるべきだろう。

We hope Europe will not lose its solid status as a strong, consistent voice for freedom and democratic values.
 自由と民主主義の価値を唱える欧州の強い存在感をこれからも失わないでほしい。

RESPOND TO MARKET TURBULENCE
 ■市場の動揺に対処を

The impact of Britain’s decision to leave the EU has roiled stock and currency markets. Leading nations should first focus on responding to confusion in financial markets.
 今回の英国の決定による影響は、株式・為替市場の動揺となって広がっている。まずは眼前の混乱への取り組みが必要だ。

In addition to Britain and the EU, the Group of Seven major industrial nations, which also includes Japan and the United States, should play the leading role in securing emergency policy coordination to calm the unnerved markets.
 英国とEUだけでなく、日米なども加わる主要7カ国(G7)が中心となって、市場の不安をおさえるよう緊急の協調体制を築きたい。

The central banks of the major countries, including the Bank of Japan, are apparently prepared to cooperate in providing cash-strapped financial institutions with dollars.
 日本銀行など各国の中央銀行は金融機関へのドル資金の供給で協力しあう構えだ。

If an unpredictable situation or the necessity of emergency responses arises, they should take flexible and powerful actions in solid cooperation to prevent a full-blown financial crisis.
不測の事態や必要が生じたときには、柔軟かつ強力に危機防止で連携してほしい。

慰霊の日 沖縄戦の記憶、共有を [英字新聞]

--The Asahi Shimbun, June 24
EDITORIAL: The meaning behind June 23 should be shared beyond Okinawa
(社説)慰霊の日 沖縄戦の記憶、共有を

Okinawa recalled its horrifying experiences in the 1945 Battle of Okinawa and consoled the spirits of the victims on June 23, the 71st anniversary of the end of the bloody warfare. June 23 is a prefecture-designated holiday marking the end of organized fighting by Japanese troops deployed to the southern island prefecture.
 沖縄はきのう、沖縄戦の犠牲者らを悼む慰霊の日を迎えた。

More than seven decades since the end of the devastating battle in the final days of the Pacific War, many scars are left unhealed in Okinawa.
 太平洋戦争末期の沖縄戦から71年。これほど長い時が過ぎてなお、沖縄では戦禍の傷口を見せつけられる。

U.S. military bases, for instance, occupy 10 percent of the prefecture’s land. Unexploded shells are still discovered frequently in various parts of the prefecture. The remains of the war dead are found in road construction sites.
 例えば、県土の10%を覆う米軍基地。県内各地で頻繁に見つかる不発弾の処理。そして、道路工事現場などから見つかる戦没者の遺骨だ。

More than 100 sets of remains are uncovered every year. In the last fiscal year, which ended in March, the remains of 103 bodies were discovered. The numbers for the preceding two years were 194 and 263, respectively.
 収骨された遺骨は昨年度が103柱、一昨年度は194柱、その前年度が263柱と、その数は毎年100柱を超す。

More than 200,000 people died in the Battle of Okinawa. By March this year, 185,224 sets of remains of Japanese war dead had been laid to rest at the national cemetery for people who died in the Battle of Okinawa in the Mabuni district of Itoman, the site of the last major fighting in the warfare, according to the prefectural government.
 沖縄戦では、20万人余が死亡した。県によると、そのうち日本人の遺骨は今年3月までに18万5224柱が収骨され、糸満市摩文仁(まぶに)の国立沖縄戦没者墓苑で眠っている。

The remains of nearly 3,000 Japanese victims have yet to be found.
それでもまだ3千柱近くが見つかっていないという。

In the Battle of Okinawa, 66,000 Japanese soldiers and civilians in the military services from other parts of Japan died along with 28,000 from Okinawa Prefecture. In addition, an estimated 94,000 non-military residents of the prefecture, or a quarter of the prefectural population, were killed.
 当時の軍人・軍属の死者は、県外出身者が6万6千人、沖縄県出身者は2万8千人。一般県民の死者は9万4千人と推定される。実に県民の4分の1が犠牲になった。

Although many remains are still waiting to be discovered, the task of gathering them has been left to private-sector volunteers. As a result, the work has been proceeding at a glacial pace.
 おびただしい遺骨があることはわかっているのに、収骨作業は民間ボランティア頼みで、なかなか進まなかった。

A law mandating the government to collect all remains of the war dead finally came into force in April.
In response, the government has decided to make intensive efforts to collect the remains over the next nine years. The government should take this opportunity to make up for lost time.
 ようやく今年4月、国に収骨を義務づける戦没者遺骨収集推進法が施行され、9年後までに集中的に収集することになった。これまでの遅れを取り戻してもらいたい。

The June 23 official memorial ceremony, sponsored by the prefectural government, was held at the Peace Memorial Park in Mabuni. But a spirit-consoling service was also held in front of the gate of Camp Schwab, a U.S. military base in the Henoko district of Nago.
 慰霊の日、摩文仁で開かれた県主催の全戦没者追悼式とは別に、名護市辺野古にある米軍キャンプ・シュワブのゲート前でも、慰霊祭が開かれた。

Immediately after the Battle of Okinawa ended, the U.S. military established an internment camp for Japanese civilians. Many residents of the prefecture, ranging from an estimated 20,000 to 40,000, spent several months in the camp. A number of civilian prisoners of war died in the camp from malaria, malnutrition and other reasons.
 沖縄戦直後、米軍がここに民間人の収容所を設置し、2万人とも4万人とも言われる住民が数カ月間、暮らした。その間、マラリアや栄養失調で亡くなる人が相次いだという。

The construction of Camp Schwab started around 1956. But a citizens group opposed to the proposed relocation of the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station Futenma from Ginowan in central Okinawa Prefecture to Henoko started holding the spirit-consoling service last year, believing there are still unfound remains within the camp.
 キャンプ・シュワブの建設は1956年ごろから始まったが、「遺骨はまだ残っているはずだ」と、米軍普天間飛行場の辺野古移設に反対する市民団体が昨年から慰霊祭を始めた。

With the law promoting the collection of war dead remains taking effect, the government has pledged to carry out such work in U.S. bases as well.
 遺骨収集推進法の施行を受けて、政府は米軍基地内の遺骨収集にも取り組むという。

The U.S. military should cooperate with efforts to ensure an early completion of the project.
米軍もぜひ協力し、一刻も早く収骨を実現してほしい。

People in Okinawa are still suffering from the excessive burden of hosting so many U.S. military bases within their prefecture. The central government has stuck stubbornly to the Futenma relocation plan despite strong opposition among people in Okinawa.
The prefecture was recently shocked by the arrest of a former U.S. Marine working as a civilian at the Kadena Air Base in the prefecture on suspicion of raping and murdering a 20-year-old woman. Her body was found in a wooded area after she went missing in late April.
 普天間飛行場の県内移設に向けた政府の強硬姿勢、米軍属による女性殺害・強姦(ごうかん)容疑事件の発生など、沖縄県民はいまも過重な基地負担にあえいでいる。

The suffering of Okinawan people due to the heavy U.S. military presence in the prefecture is inseparable from their memories of the Battle of Okinawa.
その苦悩は、沖縄戦の記憶と切り離すことはできない。

The central government and Japanese living in the mainland need to understand the full meaning of June 23 and reflect afresh on the history of suffering experienced by people in Okinawa.
 政府や本土の国民は「慰霊の日」の意味を共有し、沖縄が経験した苦難の歴史に、改めて思いを巡らす契機としたい。

北ミサイル発射 安保環境の深刻化を直視せよ [英字新聞]

The Yomiuri Shimbun
After DPRK launches, Japan must squarely face severe security situation
北ミサイル発射 安保環境の深刻化を直視せよ

The threat to the security of Japan and the United States has become more severe. We should step up our vigilance.
 日米の安全保障上の脅威が深刻化した。警戒を強めるべきだ。

North Korea has launched two missiles thought to be Musudan midrange ballistic missiles. The first missile exploded in midair, but the second flew about 400 kilometers before it plunged into the Sea of Japan. The second missile reportedly reached an altitude of more than 1,000 kilometers.
 北朝鮮が、中距離弾道ミサイル「ムスダン」とみられるミサイル2発を発射した。1発目は空中爆発したが、2発目は約400キロ飛行し、日本海に落下した。高度も1000キロを超したという。

Defense Minister Gen Nakatani said the launches “showed a certain degree of capability as midrange ballistic missiles.”
 中谷防衛相は、「中距離弾道ミサイルとしての一定の機能が示された」との見方を示した。

North Korea launched four missiles in April and May that all failed. It must be acknowledged that North Korea, by repeatedly conducting test launches, is steadily improving its technological competence and boosting the accuracy and capability of its missiles.
 4~5月に発射した4発は失敗に終わっていた。発射実験を重ねることで、技術力が着実に向上し、ミサイルの精度や性能が高まっていると受け止める必要がある。

Musudan missiles use mobile launchers and are estimated to have a range of up to 4,000 kilometers. Its targets are assumed to be U.S. military bases in Guam and Japan.
 ムスダンは移動式発射台を使用し、推定射程は最大4000キロとされる。グアムや日本の米軍基地を標的に想定しているという。

U.N. Security Council sanction resolutions prohibit North Korea from launching ballistic missiles. Prime Minister Shinzo Abe criticized the launches as “clear violations” of the resolutions. “We can never condone it,” he said. This was a natural response.
 国連安全保障理事会の制裁決議は北朝鮮の弾道ミサイル発射を禁止している。安倍首相は「明白な国連決議違反だ。絶対に許せない」と非難した。当然の対応だ。

Representatives and experts from the six nations involved in talks on the North Korean nuclear issue are holding an international conference in Beijing. Officials from North Korean authorities are also taking part. Firing missiles at this particular time appears to be a demonstration of Pyongyang’s continuing nuclear and missile development, and a show of defiance directly aimed at the international community.
 北京では、北朝鮮の核問題を巡る6か国協議の代表や有識者による国際会議が開催中で、北朝鮮当局者も出席している。この時期の発射は、核・ミサイル開発続行の示威活動ともみられ、国際社会に正面から反旗を翻すものだ。

DP, JCP ignore reality

China is also escalating its maritime advances. On June 9, a Chinese military vessel entered the contiguous zone around the Senkaku Islands in Okinawa Prefecture for the first time. Another military ship also intruded into Japan’s territorial waters off Kagoshima Prefecture and the contiguous zone around Kita-Daitojima island.
 中国も海洋進出をエスカレートさせている。中国軍艦は9日、尖閣諸島の接続水域に初めて進入した。鹿児島県沖の領海や、北大東島の接続水域にも入った。

Security-related bills that were passed in September 2015 permit a limited exercise of the right of collective self-defense, and make it possible for the Self-Defense Forces to defend U.S. military ships. To prepare for unforeseen situations, it is vital that the laws are appropriately implemented and continuous efforts are made to boost deterrence.
 昨年9月に成立した安全保障関連法は、集団的自衛権の行使を限定容認し、自衛隊による米軍艦船の防護を可能にした。不測の事態に備えて、安保関連法を適切に運用し、抑止力を高める努力を継続することが肝要である。

We have questions about the assertion by the Democratic Party and the Japanese Communist Party, which will collaborate in the House of Councillors election, that they still call for the abolition of the security legislation package.
 疑問なのは、参院選で共闘する民進、共産両党がなお、安保関連法の廃止を主張することだ。

DP leader Katsuya Okada emphasized the Japan-U.S. alliance must not be turned into “an alliance of blood.” While Okada made this comment during a street speech, was it not demagogy itself?
 民進党の岡田代表は、日米同盟を「血の同盟」にしてはならないと強調した。街頭演説とはいえ、扇動そのものではないか。

In connection with the abolition of the laws, Okada also explained that he “isn’t saying the DP will abolish” the Japan-U.S. Security Treaty, and that the alliance will not become “distorted.” His comments can be described only as opportunism.
 岡田氏は、関連法廃止について「日米安保条約を廃棄するとは言っていない。日米同盟がおかしくなることはない」とも説明する。ご都合主義と言うほかない。

Strengthening Japan-U.S. defense cooperation based on the laws will contribute to the stability of Asia, and has been highly evaluated by the international community. The alliance relationship must not be allowed to stray off course by abolishing the laws.
 安保関連法を基盤にした日米防衛協力の強化は、アジアの安定に寄与するもので、国際社会も高く評価している。廃止によって同盟関係を迷走させてはならない。

JCP leader Kazuo Shii even went so far as saying his party would gradually dissolve the SDF, which it considers “unconstitutional.” This is unrealistic in the extreme.
 共産党の志位委員長は、「違憲」の自衛隊を段階的に解消するとまで言う。非現実的に過ぎる。

Arguments that ignore Japan’s security environment will not be able to win the support of the people.
 安保環境を無視した議論は、国民の支持を得られまい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 23, 2016)

参院選 きょう公示 戦略的投票でこたえよう [英字新聞]

--The Asahi Shimbun, June 22
EDITORIAL: 'Strategic voting' is a must for pivotal Upper House election
(社説)参院選 きょう公示 戦略的投票でこたえよう

Campaigning for the July 10 Upper House election kicked off on June 22.
 参院選がきょう公示される。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe is making the economy the main issue. But there is no question that constitutional amendment will also be at stake, even though Abe says it is not necessary for it to become an election issue. His reasoning is that the Diet needs to debate this subject further.
 安倍首相が前面に掲げるのは経済だ。一方、その裏に憲法改正があるのは明白だ。

Abe is more than eager to revise the Constitution. But with the prime minister giving no indication whatsoever of which parts of the Constitution he intends to rewrite and how, voters have no way of forming a judgment.
 首相は、必ずしも改憲を争点にする必要はないという。国会での議論がいまだ収斂(しゅうれん)していないというのが、その理由だ。
 しかし、改憲に意欲的な首相自身がどこをどう変えたいのかをまったく明かさないのでは、有権者は判断しようがない。

Abe is conducting politics the "wrong side up" or "back to front." Do we voters allow such an approach to escalate, or do we put the brakes on it? This Upper House election definitely carries far more weight than a mere "midterm evaluation" of the Abe administration.
 こんな逆立ちした政治の進め方に弾みをつけるのか、ブレーキをかけるのか。この参院選には「政権の中間評価」ではすまない重みがある。

NOT REFLECTING POPULAR WILL
 ■民意とのねじれ

This will be the second Upper House election since Abe began his second stint as prime minister in December 2012. In retrospect, Abe became the "sole winner" by bringing both chambers of the Diet under the control of the ruling coalition with the previous Upper House election in 2013, which was seven months after the change in government from the then Democratic Party of Japan.
 安倍氏が2012年12月に首相に返り咲いてから、参院選は2度目になる。振り返れば「安倍1強政治」の出発点となったのは、政権交代から7カ月後に衆参の「ねじれ」を解消した13年の前回参院選だった。

Voters who voted for the Liberal Democratic Party and its junior coalition partner, New Komeito, now called Komeito, in that election were apparently disgusted by the inefficacy of the DPJ administration, and wanted the LDP-New Komeito coalition to stabilize politics and focus on improving the Japanese economy.
 この時に自民、公明両党に票を投じた有権者には、民主党政権の混乱にあきれ、安定した政治で景気回復に取り組んでほしいとの思いが見てとれた。

After that Upper House election three years ago, we wrote in our editorial that the government should not be "divorced from popular will."
 3年前のねじれ解消を受け、私たちは社説で「民意とのねじれを恐れよ」と書いた。

We wondered if the wages would go up for small and midsize company workers and those working outside the big cities. We wondered if the Abe administration would be able to secure revenues needed to stabilize the health-care and social security systems. And the thrust of our argument was that should Abe ignore these concerns and proceed instead with his policy of "departure from the postwar regime," he would be betraying the wishes of the people.
中小企業や地方で働く人々の賃金は上がるのか、財源を確保して医療や福祉を安定させられるのか。首相がこうした期待に応えぬまま「戦後レジームからの脱却」にかじを切れば、民意を裏切ることになるとの趣旨だ。

We believe we have been proven right, given the continuing surge of popular protest against the Abe administration since the enactment of national security legislation last year.
 昨年の安全保障関連法の制定からなお続く反対運動のうねりをみれば、この懸念は的外れではなかったと感じる。

In the upcoming election, Abe says the focal point is to seek the public's approval of his "new decision" of postponing the consumption tax hike. By stressing economic statistics such as increased tax revenues and employment, he is telling voters to decide whether they want "Abenomics" to advance or regress.
 消費増税先送りという「新しい判断」の信を問う。これが首相のいう争点だ。税収や就業者の増加といった経済指標を強調し、アベノミクスを前に進めるか後戻りさせるかと訴える。

The proper thing for Abe is to take responsibility for reneging on his promise to raise the consumption tax rate “for certain." But in not doing so, he appears to be taking advantage of the honest feelings of many people who are reluctant to "swallow the bitter medicine" of paying a higher consumption tax.
 首相は本来、増税を「確実に実施する」という約束を破った責任を取るべきだ。そうしない裏には、「苦い薬は飲みたくない」という多くの国民の率直な思いに乗じた計算が見える。

Abe has said that the victory depends on "the ruling coalition winning a majority of contested seats." Setting the goal may demonstrate his resolve, but whether he will step down if he fails to achieve that goal is anyone's guess.
 安倍氏は「与党で改選議席の過半数獲得」を勝敗ラインに掲げる。覚悟を示したかに見えるが、勝敗ラインを割れば退陣するのかは、はっきりしない。

LOW VOTER TURNOUT CONTINUES
 ■低い投票率の結果

The ruling coalition of Abe's LDP and Komeito has won three national elections in a row since 2012. And one common factor among the three polls was low voter turnout.
 安倍氏率いる自民党と公明党が3連勝した12年以降の衆参両院の選挙には、共通の特徴がある。投票率が低いのだ。

The rates were at the 59 percent level for the 2012 Lower House election and at the 52 percent level for both the 2013 Upper House election and the 2014 Lower House election. Voter turnout in 2014 was the lowest in the postwar history of Lower House elections.
 12年衆院選で59%台、13年参院選と14年衆院選はともに52%台で、14年は衆院選として戦後最低を記録した。

The difference is substantial from the nearly 70 percent voter turnout in the 2009 Lower House election that resulted in the historic change in government. In terms of the number of voters, 72.02 million people voted in the 2009 election, whereas only 54.74 million people did so in the 2014 election. To put this simply, about 17 million voters stopped going to the polls in the 2014 election.
 民主党へと政権交代した09年衆院選の69%台と比べれば、その差は大きい。投票者数でみれば、09年の7202万人に対し14年は5474万人。単純計算で、1700万あまりの人が投票所に行くのをやめた。

Between 2009 and 2014, the LDP experienced both its fall from power and return to power, but there actually was no significant difference in the number of votes the party won. In the proportional representation portion, the LDP won less than one out of five votes in each election, when abstentions are taken into account.
 自民党はこの間、野党転落と政権復帰の両方を経験したが、実は得票数に大きな変動はない。比例区では、いずれの選挙でも棄権を含めたすべての有権者の5人に1人に満たない支持で推移している。

In other words, the LDP under Abe has not really gained supporters. Under the current election system, which is prone to create wasted votes, the simple fact is that the drastic decrease in the number of DPJ supporters and the increased number of abstentions have given the LDP more seats than those in proportion to the votes it has actually won.
 つまり、安倍自民党は支持者をさほど増やしているわけではない。死票が出やすい選挙制度のもと、民主党支持の激減と棄権者の増加が、自民党に得票以上に多くの議席をもたらしているに過ぎない。

The Abe administration arbitrarily "reinterpreted" the Constitution to allow the nation to exercise its right to collective self-defense, instituted the controversial state secrets protection law, and threatened freedom of the press and the public's right to know by hinting at invoking the Broadcast Law.
 解釈改憲による集団的自衛権の行使容認。特定秘密保護法の制定や、放送法を振りかざした国民の知る権利や報道の自由への威圧。

Not only has the Abe administration marginalized the constraints of the Constitution, but it is now trying to start debate on revising the Constitution without seeking the public's input in the upcoming election.
But what can we voters do about the dangers of the administration?
憲法の縛りを緩めるばかりか、選挙で問わぬままに改正論議に手をつけようという政権の危うさを目の当たりにした有権者に何ができるか。

VOTING OUT 'BAD' CANDIDATES
 ■「悪さ加減」を選ぶ

"Strategic voting" is one way to use each vote effectively.
 答えの一つが、自らの一票を有効に使う「戦略的投票」だ。

This may be an unfamiliar term, but one example is to vote for candidates—even if they are not one’s best choices--who have a chance to defeat the party or candidate one definitely does not want.
 聞き慣れない言葉かもしれない。一例を挙げれば、最も評価しない候補者や政党を勝たせないため、自分にとって最善でなくとも勝つ可能性のある次善の候補に投票することだ。

Yukichi Fukuzawa (1835-1901), whom Abe often quotes in his speeches, once observed to the effect, "Government is not 'good' by nature. What needs to be borne in mind is to acknowledge the reality of how bad it is."
 首相もたびたび演説に引用する福沢諭吉は、こんな言葉を残している。
 「本来政府の性は善ならずして、注意す可(べ)きは只(ただ)その悪さ加減の如何(いかん)に在るの事実を、始めて発明することならん」(時事新報論集七)。

Political scientist Masao Maruyama (1914-1996) commented on Fukuzawa's observation after World War II: "A political choice is made on the basis of how bad something is."
政治学者の丸山真男は、戦後にこれを「政治的な選択とは〈中略〉悪さ加減の選択なのだ」(「政治的判断」)と紹介した。

The failure of the DPJ administration is still fresh in many people's minds. The low voter turnout rates that have continued since the party's fall from power apparently reflect the people's disillusionment with politics and sense of helplessness.
 民主党政権の失敗は、なお多くの有権者の記憶に生々しい。その後の低投票率には、政治への失望や無力感も反映されているのだろう。

But if nothing is done about this, not only will democracy deteriorate, but constitutionalism will also be in grave danger.
 だが、このままでは民主主義がやせ細るばかりか、立憲主義も危機に瀕(ひん)する。

Even if we don't have any candidate or party we want to support, we must make up our minds to go to the polls to stop what we see as "bad" from winning the election.
 意中の候補や政党がなくとも、「悪さ加減の選択」と割り切って投票所に足を運ぶ。

And we have until July 10 to think through how effectively we can use our two ballots--one for the single-seat electorate and the other for the proportional representation portion.
7月10日の投票日までに、選挙区と比例区2枚の投票用紙をいかに有効に使うかを見極める。

With 2.4 million 18- and 19-year-olds voting for the first time, the older generation cannot just sit out this upcoming election.
 18、19歳の240万人もの若者を有権者として新たに迎える選挙だ。上の世代が、ただ傍観しているわけにはいかない。
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中国艦侵入 法の適用も都合次第か [英字新聞]

--The Asahi Shimbun, June 17
EDITORIAL: China interprets international law to suit its convenience
(社説)中国艦侵入 法の適用も都合次第か

A Chinese naval intelligence ship entered Japanese territorial waters off Kagoshima Prefecture on June 15, just six days after Tokyo filed a strong protest over the entry of a Chinese naval frigate into Japan's contiguous zone near the disputed Senkaku Islands.
 沖縄県・尖閣諸島の接続水域に中国の軍艦が入ったのはつい先週のことだ。今度は中国海軍の情報収集艦が、鹿児島県沖の日本の領海を通過した。

Coincidence? We think not.
These incidents clearly signal China’s intention to achieve its aims while ignoring the security concerns of neighboring countries.
 これを偶発的な出来事とは、片づけられない。周辺国の懸念を無視する形で既成事実を積み重ねようとする態度が、中国側からうかがえる。

The Chinese government contends that passage of the warship through Japanese territorial waters was legal under freedom of navigation laws. China's Defense Ministry argues that the Tokara Strait south of Yakushima island in southern Japan is “a strait within territorial waters used for international navigation.”
“The Chinese warship’s passage was based on the principle of freedom of navigation that is stipulated under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea,” a Chinese defense official said.
 中国政府は、今回の海域について「国際航行に使われる海峡であり、各国艦船に通過する権利がある」「航行の自由の原則に合致している」としている。国際海洋法に照らして正当だと言いたいようだ。

If the Tokara Strait is actually an international strait, as Beijing contends, it is, to be sure, open to the passage of foreign vessels, including warships, even though it lies in Japanese territorial waters.
 中国の主張どおり、現場海域が国際海峡だとすれば、確かに日本領海内であっても軍艦を含め外国船舶の通過は問題ないことになる。

But it is hard to believe that the Chinese spy ship was simply passing through the strait minding its own business. What was it actually doing?
 だが、中国艦が単に通過していただけとは考えにくい。実際に何をしていたのか。

The Chinese ship entered Japanese territorial waters shadowing Indian warships that were participating in an exercise involving Japan, the United States and India. The Chinese vessel may have been monitoring the Indian ships.
The Chinese government has not offered a clear or specific explanation for the warship's presence. It has only said the ship was engaged in “a drill in the open sea.”
日米印の合同演習に参加するインド軍艦を追う形で領海に入っており、レーダーで監視していた疑いがある。この点を中国政府は「遠海訓練」とするのみで、はっきりとは説明しない。

It was the second time for a Chinese warship to enter Japanese territorial waters since a nuclear-powered submarine was sighted around the Sakishima islands in Okinawa Prefecture in November 2004.
The submarine violated international law by entering Japanese territorial waters submerged. At that time, the Chinese government admitted that the vessel had strayed into Japanese territory by mistake.
 中国艦が日本領海に入ったのは、確認されたものでは2度目だ。前回の04年11月は、原子力潜水艦が潜ったまま航行したことが違法にあたり、中国政府も「誤って入った」と認めた。

During the 12 years since then, China has aggressively beefed up its Navy and become increasingly assertive in expanding its naval presence.
 その後の12年間、中国は海軍力を強め、積極的な海洋進出の動きを隠さなくなった。

China has used its naval muscle to stake out a position without holding any talks with the countries concerned, and then tried to justify its behavior by interpreting international law in a way that suits its purpose.
周辺国と事前協議もせず、実力で事実を先行させ、あとで都合次第で法の理屈を使い正当化を図る。

If Beijing continues acting this way, tensions in both the East China Sea and the South China Sea will keep growing.
そんな行動を今後も続ければ、東シナ海も南シナ海もいっそう緊張を増す。

If China really respects the principles of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, how does it explain its moves to unilaterally draw up a demarcation line called the “nine-dash line” to claim the major part of the South China Sea and forcefully reclaim reefs in disputed areas?
 国際海洋法の原則を重視しているならば、南シナ海の大半を囲むように線引きして優先権を唱え、岩礁を強引に埋め立てることをどう説明するのか。

How can it justify its refusal to respect the ruling that the international Permanent Court of Arbitration is expected to hand down soon over the validity of China’s claim based on the line in response to a case filed by the Philippines?
フィリピンとの国際仲裁裁判を拒むことは正当化できるのか。

The foreign ministers of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations expressed concern about the situation in the South China Sea during a June 14 meeting with their Chinese counterpart in China’s Yunnan Province.
 中国雲南省で今週開かれた中国と東南アジア諸国連合(ASEAN)の特別外相会議では、南シナ海問題をめぐる懸念が参加国から表明された。

China apparently wanted to highlight its close ties with ASEAN in the special foreign ministers’ meeting, but, not surprisingly, the outcome was the opposite of what was intended.
中国はASEANとの協調ぶりを示したかっただろうが、逆に裏目に出たのも当然だろう。

China is one of the world's leading countries, and it should take responsibility for peace in Asia.
 中国は、アジアの平和に責任を負うべき大国である。

But China has at times ignored the rules and norms of the global community and at other times used them to justify its dubious actions. The way China has been behaving has made it impossible for its neighbors to trust it.
にもかかわらず国際社会のルールや規範を、あるときは無視したり、別の時は自己正当化の根拠にしたりでは、周辺国はとても信用することができない。

China is not only disturbing the tranquility of the high seas, it is also treating principles of international law as if they were at its disposal. We are deeply concerned about China’s attitude.
 静かであるべき海を荒立てる艦艇の動きに加え、法の原則まで我が物扱いしようとする中国政府の姿勢を憂慮する。

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